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Archaeology

Klejn L.S. History of archaeological thought (Prospect-abstract)

In print at the St.Petersburg University, in Russian

By Leo S. Klejn


 

This book is the first comprehensive monograph on the world history of archaeology in Russian.  In Russia and the USSR (and in Russian in general) no world history of archaeology or general history of archaeological thought has ever previously been published, either before or after the Revolution.

 

Furthermore, there are few such works in the world. When it comes to the history of their discipline, archaeologists tend to be reliant upon just two basic works, namely Glyn Daniel's history of archaeology and Bruce Trigger's history of archaeological thought. The first was published in the middle of the last century, the second in 1989 (with a new edition in 2006). Both are very good, although they both have a number of weaknesses. Both are devoted almost exclusively to prehistoric archaeology at the expense of all else. Moreover the first book is overly reliant upon English and French literature and does not mention Slavic and German works, while the second is written with very broad strokes and does not describe schools and personalities in any detail.

 

The present work is more substantial and is structured differently. For early phases the development of archaeology is considered by periods, and from the middle of the 19th century by schools.

 

This work is based on a course of lectures given by the author at the Leningrad-Petersburg University, and subsequently at Vienna University. As distinct from the more customary historiography, this course (and this monograph) is focused not solely on archaeological discoveries and administrative events (although they are touched on), but on the movement and analysis of archaeological thought, the characteristics of the various schools and the biographies of scholars. For the first time all branches of archaeology are united – prehistoric, classical, medieval and so on. Therefore inquiry into problems of art interpretation, and into philological and cultural themes run through the entire course, and the whole movement is considered in the close connection with the history of anthropology.

 

From Russian archaeology only such phenomena are included as had impact on the archaeology of the leading countries. One should bear in mind that besides this course a separate course of the history of domestic (Russian) archaeology was given in accordance with the Petersburg University program.

 

The classification of scholars, by schools and traditions, is somewhat different to that conventionally given. So, for example, Bordes is grouped with American taxonomists. Lerois-Gourhan is considered in connection with Neoevolutionism and Contextualism. New designations of teachings are introduced: Transformism as a tradition before Evolutionism (in another meaning than it was usual in France). Diffusionism is treated differently than usual. New teachings are distinguished: Interactionism, the Third Evolutionism, anti-System movement (“archaeological anti-Globalism”). This work of course reflects the individual interpretations of the author, but all these innovations are argued for, in the hope that they will enter scholarly discourse.

 

There are 44 chapters in the monograph. Aside from the Introduction and Conclusion, 11 chapters are devoted to the creation of archaeology and the formation of its various branches, the next 19 chapters to the schools of the fruitful century – the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century, while the last 11 chapters are devoted to contemporary schools and trends, including a few so modern as not yet to be in any manuals and as yet having no stable names. Of course the author considers all these schools and trends from the perspective of his own position, but he does not obtrusively impose this position upon the reader.

 

The length of this work necessitates its publication in two volumes. The work includes no less than 200 illustrations, indices and an expansive bibliography. Although the work is planned as a textbook, all quotations are supported by references, for this is simultaneously a research monograph. The work is intended for students, and all archaeologists and for workers in neighbouring fields (history, sociology, anthropology, ethnography etc.) in Russia and in the countries where Russian is known.

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CONTENTS

Foreword

Preface to the lecture course of 2004 – 2006

Ch.1. Introduction. The aims of studying and principles of exposition

1.            The importance of history of archaeology

2.            The subject matter of historiography

3.            Books on the history of archaeology (the survey of literature)

4.            The “damned question” of archaeology

5.            Methodological approaches

6.            The impetus for development

7.            The choice of exposition structure

8.            From periods to trends

9.            Conclusion

Part I. Stages in the movement to archaeology

Ch. 2. The problem of the beginning of archaeology

1.         Adjudicating affiliations

2.         When did archaeology begin?

3.         Attributes of scholarship

4.         “Popular archaeology”

5.         Conclusion

Ch. 3. Shoots of archaeology in the ancient world

1.         Making sense of terminological disorder

2.         “Sacral archaeology”: archaeological knowledge in the Ancient Orient

3.         Classical notions of prehistory

4.         Antiquities in the Homeric epics

5.         Material antiquities as sanctuaries (“sacral archaeology” in the classical world)

6.         Taking a fancy to antiquities

7.         The veneration of antiquities in ancient Eastern Asia

8.         Archaeological consideration in the classical world: Herodotus and Thucydides

9.         Terms and concepts

10.        The tenacity of “sacral archaeology”

11.        Was archaeology necessary?

Ch. 4. The Middle Ages and antiquities

1.         The Medieval way of thinking

2.         The Classical heritage among medieval antiquities

3.         Medieval passion for antiquities in Asia

4.         “Popular archaeology” in the Middle Ages

5.         Events as “sacral archaeology” in the Middle Ages

6.         The Archaeological situation

7.         Biblical history and the short chronology

8.         Innovations of the Renaissance

9.         Orientation to classical antiquities

10.        Conclusion

Ch. 5. Early antiquarianism

1.         Antiquarianism as a phenomenon

2.         The Renaissance and its ideas

3.         Attitudes to antiquities at the time of the Reformation. Camden

4.         Dilettanti and antiquaries

5.         The Discredit of “popular archaeology”

6.         Scientific revolution and the view of ancient epochs

7.         Antiquaries of the Age of Reason. Bure and Worm

8.         Preliminary conclusion

Ch. 6. Late antiquarianism

1.         Turning point of the century

2.         Antiquaries of France and Sweden during the culmination of the Age of Reason: Spon, Verelius and Rydbek

3.         Antiquaries of England of the Age of Reason: Aubrey

4.         Novelties of the Age of Enlightenment and material antiquities

5.         Antiquaries of the Age of Enlightenment in England. Stukeley

6.         Antiquaries of the Age of Enlightenment in Scandinavia

7.         Antiquaries of the Age of Enlightenment in Germany

8.         Antiquaries of France:  Mountfaucon and Caylus

9.         The first excavation of Herculanum and Pompei

10.        Conclusion. At the threshold of archaeology

Part II. Branches of archaeology in the making and the formation of the first archaeological conceptions

Ch. 7. Winckelmann

1.         A mysterious murder

2.         Prussian dismal existence

3.         Secretary in Saxony

4.         Blissful Italy

5.         Aware of the mission

6.         Style equals epoch

7.         “Father of archaeology”

8.         The kiss of Zeus

9.         Two journeys and three layers of mystery

10.        Winckelmann’s Renaissance

Ch. 8. Classical archaeology in the making

1.         The Fruits of Enlightenment and the Ancient World

2.         Diplomats-antiquaries

3.         The Archaeology of Bonapartes

4.         Discovery of the real Greece

5.         Two miracles of the world are uncovered

6.         The discovery of the Etruscans

7.         Goethe and the classical antiquities

8.         The genealogical tree of Professors and archaeology

9.         The professors and their teaching: Heine, Gerhard a.o.

10.        The philological school

11.        The impact of Romanticism on the early classical archaeology: morphology and hermeneutics

Ch. 9. Birth of domestic archaeologies

1. Romanticism and archaeologists

2. Barrow-mania in England

3. The Danish compensation

4. Christian Thomsen and his System of Three Ages

5. Worseau, Thomsen’s successor

6. Worseau and medieval archaeology

7. Swen Nilsson and his integration of archaeology with ethnography

8. Danish archaeological revolution

9. The resistance to the Three Ages

10. Stratigraphic proofs

11. Ethnic labels: toward the glory of ancestors

12. Conclusion: some lessons

Ch. 10. The rise of archaeological study of Non-European lands

1.         Branches of archaeology and its history

2.         Birth of oriental archaeology: Egypt

3.         Mariette-bey

4.         Birth of oriental archaeology: the Holy Land, Mesopotamia and Persia

5.         The discovery of Assyria: Botta and Layard

6.         The forerunners of biblical archaeology

7.         The Evidence of monuments of India

8.         The beginning of New World archaeology: the civilization of the Maya

9.         The beginning of New World archaeology: “Mount Builders”

10.        Russia and oriental archaeology

11.        Conclusion

12.        Some lessons

Ch. 11. The discovery of the depth of the past

1.         Biblical archaeology

2.         Catastrophists and Fluvialists. The naturalists’ offensive against Biblical archaeology

3.         Mammoth and man. The chronicle of lost possibilities

4.         Boucher de Perthes: on the way to discovery

5.         Boucher de Perthes: the struggle for recognition

6.         Eduard Lartet

7.         Paleontological periodisation of Palaeolithic

8.         Evolution nearby

9.         Some lessons

Ch. 12. Divergence of the classical archaeology

1.         The divergence of the history of art from the history of culture

2.         The expansion of the art-studying archaeology into the neighbouring branches

3.         The impact of the Age of Technology

4.         Individualism and descriptivism

5.         The autonomy of shape

6.         The impact of the German culture-historical school

7.         Fiorelli in Pompei

8.         Alexander Konze in Samophrakia and Humann in Pergam

9.         Ernst Curtius in Olympia

10.        Schliemann at Troy

11.        Conclusion

Ch. 13. Evolutionism

1.         Evolutionism as a trend

2.         Evolutionism in other disciplines

3.         Evolutionism of Pitt-Rivers

4.         Lubbock, archaeologist and cultural anthropologist

5.         Gabriel de Mortillet

6.         Evolutionism and Europe

7.         Evolutionists in North-American archaeology

8.         The departure

9.         Summation

10.        Some lessons

Part III. Cultural-historical archaeology

Ch. 14. The beginning of cultural-historical archaeology and migrationism

1.         Geography and the spirit of the time

2.         Resistance to the Three Age System in Germany

3.         Virchow and the focus on separate cultures

4.         Ratzel’s anthropogeography and migrationism

5.         Frobenius and cultural circles

6.         Cologne school of Graebner

7.         Cultural circles in Vienna school

8.         Cultural-historical archaeology

9.         Some lessons

Ch. 15. Culture and diffusionism

1.         The Concept of ‘culture’ in the making

2.         The Concept of ‘culture’ as understood by the Evolutionists and in anthropogeography

3.         Culture as understood by Diffusionists

4.         Archaeological culture

5.         Diffusionism as a teaching

6.         Diffusionism and politics

7.         Migration in the system of Diffusionism

8.         ‘Racial theory’

9.         Indo-European linguistics as a basis of Migrationism

10.         Demographic, social and archaeological study of migrations

11.         Influences and borrowings in the system of Diffusionism

12.         The Psychological basis of imitation

13.         Support of transmission in linguistics and folklore studies

14.         Some lessons

Ch. 16. Schliemann

1.         The Legend on Schliemann

2.         Biography

3.         Upbringing

4.         Andrey Aristovich in St.Petersburg

5.         Transformation

6.         A New Odysseus

7.         The first campaign of excavation in Ilios and the ‘Priamus’ Hoard’

8.         Schliemann at Mycenae and the ‘mask of Agamemnon’

9.         The second campaign in Ilios – with Burnouf and Virchow

10.        Schliemann in Orchomenus

11.        The third campaign of excavations – with Dörpfeld

12.        Schliemann in Tiryns

13.        The fourth campaign of excavation in Ilios and the catastroph

14.        The fate of Schliemann’s treasures

15.        The significance of Schliemann

16.        Some lessons

Ch. 17. Imperial Diffusionism: the cradle of civilisations

1.         Diffusion and diffusionism

2.         Schliemann in Crete

3.         Evans in Bosnia and the migrations of the Belguians

4.         Evans in Crete and the excavations of Knossus

5.         Evans as the leader of British archaeology

6.         The idea of a sea power

7.         Egocentrism and the first European script

8.         The dramatic end

9.         Fate and Justice

10.        A comparison of figures

11.        Leonard Woolley

12.        Woolley and his invasions

13.        Woolley and the precedence of the Sumerians

14.        The ‘Archaic hypothesis’ of Spinden

15.        Conclusion and some lessons

Supplement: The poetry of Agatha Christie

Ch. 18. Scandinavian Diffusionism: Montelius and Sophus Müller

1.         The revision of historiographical schemes

2.         Montelius and Mortillet

3.         Montelius and Sophus Müller

4.         Typological method

5.         The criticism of typological method and Sophus Müller’s method

6.         Long or short chronology?

7.         Montelius and Sophus Müller as diffusionists

8.         Montelius as a scholar and personality

9.         Sophus Müller as a scholar and personality

10.        The reflection of Scandinavian Diffusionism in the Central Europe. Paul Reinecke

11.        Some lessons

Ch. 19. Anti-Evolutionism

1.         The Church against evolution

2.         Boule and the palaeontology of man

3.         The Neanderthal man from Chapelle

4.         The fate of Boule’s construction

5.         Breuil and the Palaeolithic depictions

6.         ‘La bataille Aurignacienne’ and the change of industries after Breuil

7.         Breuil and the separate Palaeolithic cultures

8.         Breuil, the specificity of the personality

9.         Obermaier and Peyrony

10.        Migrationism of Dorothy Garrod and the parallel cultures of Movius

11.        Viennese school

12.        Two lives of Oswald Menghin

13.        The Christian Evolutionism of Teilhard de Chardin

14.        The confrontation of Evolutionism and anti-Evolutionism

15.        Some lessons

Ch. 20. German migrationsim

1.         Investigating traces of Kossinna

2.         ‘Kossinism’

3.         At the craddle of ‘prehistoric ethnology’

4.         The beginning of ‘Siedlungsarchäologie’ (archaeology of residence)

5.         Confrontation and the struggle for domination

6.         The ‘extremely national discipline’

7.         Gold bowls and the split

8.         War and graves

9.         Nordic Aryans and the appeal to anthropology

10.        War marches of Indo-Germans in the Neolithic

11.        Personality and the heritage of Kossinna

12.        The composition and the roots of Kossinnism

13.        The working out of ethnic history – the origins of peoples and of linguistic families

14.        The underlying principles of culture history

15.        Critics of Kossinna

16.        The significance of Kossinna’s heritage

17.        Some lessons

Part IV. The crisis of cultural-historical archaeology and the outlets from it

Ch. 21. Environmentalism (The Ecological direction)

1.         The geographic approach to archaeology

2.         Crawford

3.         Fox

4.         Graham Clark

5.         The “Economic basis”

6.          “Star Carr” and other books by Clark

7.          Higgs

8.          The Spatial Archaeology

9.          Danish ecologic tradition

10.        Hamburg Geographic Archaeology and Jankuhn’s ‚Siedlungsarchäologie’

11.        Some lessons

Ch. 22. Hyperdiffusionism

1.         Dilettantism and scientific norms

2.         The lost tribes of Israel and the Greek fleet

3.         Atlantis, America and Egypt

4.         The conversion of Rivers

5.         Rivers as a diffusionist

6.         Manchester school of Elliot Smith

7.         Other diffusionists

8.         Thor Heyerdahl

9.        Fanaticism and research

10.        Some lessons

Ch. 23. Invasionism and Biblical archaeology

1.         Migrationism as invasionism

2.          Flinders Petrie’s route to archaeology

3.          Dynastic Egypt, methods of excavation and ‘cross-dating’

4.          Predynastic Egypt and the method of ‘sequence-dating’

5.          The scholar and man

6.          Ideological position

7.          William Albright – ‘the dean of Biblical archaeology’

8.          “What remains of the House That Albright Built?”

9.          Kathleen Kenyon and the excavations of Jericho

10.         British Invasionism: Abercromby, Hawkes and Piggott

11.         Italian Invasionism

12.         Conclusion and some lessons

Ch. 24. The Moderate Diffusionism

1.         Polarisation

2.         American Diffusionism: Boas

3.         Cultural areas

4.         Seriation and the ‘Stratigrahic Revolution’

5.         Uniqueness of Childe

6.         Australia – Oxford – Australia. Childe before his turn to archaeology

7.         “The Dawn”

8.         The development of the theme of diffusion

9.          Mortimer Wheeler

10.        The convictions of a colossus

11.        The Moderate Diffusionism of Glynn Daniel

12.        Methodical elaborations of the Moderate Diffusionism

13.        Vladimir Miloji and his chronological scheme

14.        The result

15.        Some lessons

Ch. 25. Taxonomism

1.         Taxonomism as a trend in archaeology

2.         Kidder and the Pecos conference

3.         Competing taxonomies

4.         The Michigan centre and James Forde

5.         Irving Rouse, the peak of Taxonomism

6.         François Bordes

7.         The Taxonomic trend in Russia: Gorodtsov

8.         Palaeoethology of Boris Zhukov

9.         Conclusion and lessons

Ch. 26. Combinationism

1.         An Unnoticed trend

2.         Kondakov: the Moscow beginning

3.         Odessa period

4.         The iconographic method

5.         Petersburg period

6.         The school

7.         Combinationism

8.         Social position

9.         Emigration

10.        Rostovtsev’s background in Russia

11.        Asking history

12.        The Study of Scythia

13.        The member of the Academy in politics

14.        The beginning of emigration

15.        America and Dura-Europos

16.        Farmakovsky

17.        Modern combinationism

18.        Some lessons

Part V. Methodologies advanced as paradigms and schools confronting them

27. Stadialism and Marxism

1.         Archaeology in the Revolution and the Revolution in archaeology (1917-1934)

2.         Catastrophe and changing structures (1917-1924)

3.         Member of the Academy N. Ya. Marr, linguist and archaeologist

4.         ‘Japhetic theory’ and the ‘New Teaching on Language’

5.         Revolution in archaeology: the Moscow impulse (1924-1929)

6.         Artsikhovsky: the ‘method of ascending’

7.         Revolution in archaeology: Leningrad campaign (1930-1934)

8.         The red Ravdonikas

9.         Is Marxist archaeology possible?

10.        Theory of stadiality

11.        Marxist sociologism

Ch. 28. Neoevolutionism

1.         Neoevolutionism as a direction

2.         Childe as a Marxist

3.         From diffusion to evolution: the economy of prehistoric society

4.         Functionalism and evolution: economic-cultural revolutions

5.         Soviet influences: Marxism and the revival of Morgan

6.         London decade: the solving of the riddle of European uniqueness

7.         Crisis and departure

8.         Socio-anthropological Neo-Evolutionism in America

9.         Neo-Evolutionism of Leslie White

10.        ‘Multilinear Evolutionism’ of Julian Steward

11.        Disciples of White and Steward

12.        The Cross-cultural analysis of Neo-Evolutionist Murdock

13.        Robert Braidwood and the Neolithic Revolution

14.        Richard MacNeish and archaeobotanic studies

15.        Robert Adams and the fate of urban civilisations

16.        The preliminary summations: evolutionism and neo-evolutionism

17.        French Neo-Evolutionism: André Leroi-Gourhan

18.        Neo-Evolutionist in France: the voice in the wilderness

19.        Soviet archaeology: evolution and Marxism

20.        The crisis of the Neo-Evolutionism

Ch. 29. Structuralism

1.         Introduction

2.         Birth of structural ideas in linguistics – Saussure, Trubetskoy and Jacobson

3.         The precursor of Structuralism in cultural anthropology Van Gennep

4.         The ideas of philological Structuralism in the Soviet union: Propp and Lotman

5.         Levy-Bruhl, Jean Piaget and pre-logical thinking

6.         Structuralism of the Annales school

7.         Levy-Strauss, the biography

8.         The idea of the unity of the human mind and of the main mental structures: binary oppositions

9.         Structures and history

10.        Levy-Strauss – the analysis of myths

11.        How Levy-Strauss used the ideas of structural linguistics

12.        Levy-Strauss – the basis of success

13.        Levy-Strauss – the significance of his contribution

14.        American anthropological structuralism: Kennet Pyke, cognitive anthropology and the ‘New Ethnography’

15.        Ideas of structuralism in art-studies

16.        Ideas of structuralism in the German classical archaeology

17.        André Leroi-Gourhan and Palaeolithic arts

18.        Structuralism in American archaeology: James Deetz and operations with formemes

19.        Conclusion

Ch. 30. Contextualism

1.         Introduction

2.         Functionalism in America: Duncan Strong

3.         Научная родословная Тэйлора

4.         Walter Taylor and his ‘Study of archaeology’

5.         Archaeology as a discipline and its place among other disciplines

6.         Theory

7.         Typology after Taylor

8.         Problem-setting research design

9.         The Conjunctive approach of Taylor, or Contextualism

10.        Perception of Taylor’s book and his fate

11.        The development and systematisation in Contextualists. Gordon Willey

12.        Settlement archaeology: Chang Guang Chih and Bruce Trigger

13.        The Contextual approach in France

14.        Conclusion and some lessons

Ch. 31. Empirical schools

1.         Introduction

2.         Empiricism, inductivism, and positivism

3.         The Stimuli of empiricism

4.         Joseph Henry and Smithsonian Institution

5.         L’Abbé Bourgeois’ apology

6.         The Empiricism of Virchow and Boas

7.         Summarisers of prehistoric archaeology

8.         The distinctive archaeology of Jacob-Friesen

9.         The Marburg school of Merhart

10.        Courbin vs, New Archaeology

11.        Manifestations and attributes of empiricism in archaeology

12.        Statistical ideas: Albert Spaulding

13.        Some lessons

Ch. 32. Hyperscepticism

1. Introduction

2. The relativity of classifications: Brew and Forde

3. The philosophy of history of the archaeologist and philosopher R.G. Collingwood

4. The Hyperscepticism of Glynn Daniel

5. Fellow-champions of Faniel

6. Hawkes ‘Ladders’

7. Models of Piggott

8. The causes of the outburst of Hyperscepticism

9. The criticism of Hyperscepticism in archaeology

Ch. 33. Autonomous archaeology in the hystorical synthesis and Emergentism

1.         On the ruins of ‘Siedungsarcharchäologie’

2.         The biography of Ernst Wahle

3.         Teaching of Wahle

4.          Eggers and the inner criticism of archaeological sources

5.         Rolf Hachmann and the ‘regressive purification’

6.         Ulrich Fischer: archaeological cultures as costumes

7.         Conclusion and some lessons

Part VI. The peak of modernism in archaeology


Ch. 34. Scientific archaeology

1.         Scientism in archaeology

А.     Descriptive archaeology and the French logicism

2.         Neorationalism

3.         Descriptive archaeology

4.         Formalisation and the scientific level

5.         Gardin’s archaeological constructs and his logistic principle

6.         Gallay and the ‘tomorrow archaeology’

Б.     The Swedish rationalism on the ways of scientification

7.         Swedish rationalism in philosophy

8.         From 2M to 3H

9.         Mats Malmer and his spatial archaeology

10.        ‘Neolithic studies’

11.        Classification as the centre of gravity

12.        Malmer’s ‘rationalism’

13.        Three M

14.        Conclusion and some lessons

Ch. 35. New archaeology (processualism). Hempelian trend

1.         Scientific revolution in archaeology of U.S.A. and the New Archaeology

2.          Lewis Binford

3.          Social background and roots

4.          Neo- and post-Positivism: the inflence of Hempel and the problem of reliability

5.          Archaeology as anthropology – against history

6.          Explanation

7.          Systemic understanding of culture

8.          The Potential of sources

9.          Deductive research design

10.        Mathematical methods

11.        The Criticism of the New Archaeology

12.        The crisis of the Processualism

13.        Some lessons

Ch. 36. New Archaeology (processualism). Analytical trend

1.          The second trend of the New Archaeology

2.          David Clarke: his life

3.          The mirage of the ‘analytical machine’

4.          Reductionism

5.          Variability

6.          Systemic understanding of culture in Clarke

7.          Models in archaeology

8.          Spacial archaeology

9.          General theory

10.        The discussion of analytical archaeology

11.        Some particular lessons

Ch. 37. New Archaeology (processualism). Serutan trend

1.          A trend of New Archaeology

2.          Kent Flannery and the formation of the producing economy

3.          Flannery among the typical images

4.          Flannery and the origin of civilisation

5.          Colin Renfrew, the contemporary of David Clarke

6.          Sheffield, the ascent to glory

7.          Neomarxism in England

8.          Southampton: social archaeology

9.          The group “Salvage” and TAG

10.        Southampton: theory of catastrophes

11.        Conclusion

12.        Some lessons

Ch. 38. Behavioural Archaeology

1.          Polarisation of interests: globalism and the individual

2.          The crisis of New Archaeology

3.          Stephen Daniels and David Clarke’s signs of disillusionment with Processualism

4.          Binford: ‘two contexts of research’ and the ‘bridging argument’

5.          Experimental archaeology and ethnoarchaeology

6.          Binford: ethnoarchaeology of Nunamiuts

7.          The Behavioral Archaeology of Michael Shiffer

8.          William Ratje’s garbage Archaeology

9.          Archaeological sources in Leo Klejn

10.        Binford: Middle Range Theory

11.        ‘The Pompeii Premise’

12.        Golden Marshaltown

13.     Some lessons

Part VII. Postmodernism and the contemporary trends in archaeology

Ch. 39. Post-Processualism

1.          Cambridge and Michigan: Cognitive Archaeology

2.          The coming of Post-Processualism

3.          Post-Processualism against Modernism

4.          Social-economical roots of Modernism and Post-Modernism

5.          Mysticism as a prelude and presage

6.          Mental roots:

a)       phenomenology

b)       hermeneutics

c)       critical theory

d)       post-structuralism: Michail Bakhtin and Roland Barthes

e)       post-structuralism of Thomas Kuhn and social constructivism of Michel Foucault

f)         post-structuralism of Abraham Moles

7.          Ethnography as ‘thick description’ – Clifford Geertz

8.          Ian Hodder, the leader of Post-Processualism

9.          From ethnoarchaeology to symbols

10.        Reading the past

a)       archaeology interpreting the text

b)       hermeneutics and relativism

c)       critical archaeology

d)       structuralist and contextualist ideas

e)       historical idealism

11.        Hodder and Post-Processualism

12.        Disciples

13.        Feminist archaeology

14.        Criticism of Post-Processualism

15.        Personal addition

16.        The appraisal of Post-Modernism

17         Some lessons

Ch. 40. Anti-Systemic movements

1.          Current state of the discipline and the prospects of its development

2.          Archaeological Antiglobalism

3.          Competitive Globalism as a kind of Antiglobalism

4.          Who owns the past?

5.          Ethics at Cambridge and everywhere

6.          The destruction of the main concepts

7.          The wave of individualism

8.          Situations, fields and roles in psychology and anthropology

9.          Ethnos and personality in anthropology

10.        ‘The integral social field’ and Interactionism

11.        Post-Structuralism of Bourdieu and Giddens

12.        Archaeology and ‘agency theory’

13.        Interpersonalism in archaeology

14.        Conclusion and some lessons

Ch. 41. Neo-Marxism in archaeology

1.          Marxism as anti-Systemic movement?

2.          Kinds of Marxism

3.          Marxism in archaeology

4.          Prospects of Marxism in archaeology

5.          Marxism or post-Marxism?

6.          Para-Marxist archaeologies?

7.         Conclusion and some lessons

Ch. 42. Synthesis and “figuring it out”

1.  Cambridge: ethical problems

2.  Russian correspondence

3.  The transfer to taking up the past

4.  Theory of material engagement

5.  Conclusion and some lessons

Ch. 43. The Third Evolutionism

1.          Resumption of Evolutionism

2.          Sociobiology

3.          The Egoistic gene and the elusive meme

4.          Selectionism (Darwinian Archaeology)

5.          Co-evolution

6.          The nature of man and civilisation – the view from Russia

7.          Ecology of human behaviour

8.          Ecological-demographic evolutionism

9.          “Sequentions” and theory of communication

10.        Conclusion and some lessons

Ch. 44. Conclusion: summations and a prospect

1.          The character and course of the history of archaeological thinking

2.          Alternative archaeologies

3.          To split up or to lump together?

4.          Epochs and traditions

5.          Structure of exposition

6.          Candidates for attention

7.          The Problem of mutual complementarity

8.          Choice and polemics

9.          Teleconnection and the sources of innovation

10.        The use of theories, and Clavs Randsborg

11.        Self-appraisal and ‘critical theory’

12.        Some lessons

Bibliography

Indices

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